B.R Ambedkar and Deendayal Upadhyaya on social justice: A comparative study
Pravesh Kumar, Gajendra
Social Justice has been the key factor of the state policies of both the developed and developing countries of the 21st century. It has become the norm that the policies of the state should adhere to the principles of social justice. Countries like India have given space to social justice in their constitution under many articles i.e Articles 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 39, 46, etc. The philosophy of social justice, believed by many, consists of distributive and retributive justice collectively. B.R. Ambedkar and Deendayal Upadhyaya, the political ideologue of Indian politics, strived to establish justice in the Indian society via different ways and methods. Ambedkar believed that social justice, for him, is the collective form of equality, liberty, and fraternity. For him, an ideal state should be based on these principles. Equality and fraternity are legal terms that can be established on a legal basis but the fraternity is to be established by society. Ambedkar argued(2016) that the varna system, caste system, and untouchability were the key factors that led to the deprivation of Scheduled Caste, Scheduled tribe, and other backward classes from the mainstream development. These also stopped India from becoming one nation. Deendayal Upadhyaya also believed that it is the responsibility of the state and society together to fulfill the basic needs of the people. Deendayal talked about the primary goods in society and emphasized the role of the state in fulfilling these goals. He tried to compose a theory of justice on humanitarian grounds. He believed that the complete development of an Individual (Development of his Body, mind, Wisdom, and Soul) should be the aim of the state policies. This article provides a historical analysis of social justice in the Indian context concerning Ambedkar and Deendayal Upadhyaya. It begins with the historical basis for social justice in India and the rationale for why it is needed. We then outline the philosophy behind social justice and its legal ramifications. The article then tries to evaluate the success of social justice and outlines the criticisms that have been made of it. We then try to compare both Ambedkar and Deendayal’s views on Social justice.