Problems of women village panchayat presidents: A study with special reference to scheduled caste in Tamil Nadu
Background: Despite the long journey, India, 73rd Constitution Amendment Act was enacted in 1992, which came into force in 1993 in whole Indian states to promote rural governance and rural development with the help of community participation, and the 11th schedule was incorporated in Indian Constitution which provides 29 subjects. This act provides autonomous power to enact welfare policy in favour of all communities within their jurisdiction subjects. This act provides good governance through people participation and people are directly involved in the decision-making process of rural government with the help of most disadvantaged communities such as women and Scheduled Caste. Because the Scheduled Caste and women are among the most disadvantaged communities in India regarding their education and access to commons and they are denied even their basic rights also. Aims and Objectives: The present study covers two objectives: 1. to determine the socio economic background of Scheduled Caste (SC) women panchayat presidents in Sivaganga District, and 2. to analyze the SC women panchayat president’s role and responsibilities and performance towards developmental activities, 3. To study the historical perspectives of the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 4. To find out the relations between public and SC women to promote good governance, 5. to gather people opining about SC women’s role in panchayat activities. Research Questions/Hypotheses: Why are governments providing reservations for women particularly SC women in local body elections? What are the role and responsibilities of SCs women panchayat President to strengthen good governance? Whether 73rd constitution amendment act provides full power to reserved categories? Whether SC Women Panchayat Women (SCWPP) is acting independently without any barrios from others? Whether SCWPP performances are well? What are the attitudes of non SCs communities to work under SCWPP? The study assumes that the Scheduled Castes Women Panchayat President in Tamil Nadu is performing better to promote good governance at the local level.Method/Study Design: Both primary and secondary data are using this study. Secondary data collected from the various government documents and Census of India. The Primary data collected through case study method and focus group discussion. The case study method and FGD are a very popular form of qualitative analysis and involve a careful and complete observation of social unit be that unit a person, a family, an institution, a cultural group or even the entire community. The case study method is a technique by which individual factors whether it is an institution or just an episode in the life of an individual or a group is analyzed in its relationship to any other in the groups. In Siva Ganga district, 43 seats are reserved for Scheduled Caste women in the position of Village Panchayat and these 43 village panchayat presidents were included in this study.Conclusion: The study found that the 73rd constitution amendment act has given power to the people particularly Scheduled Caste women and they create a welfare policy to the overall development of rural development. It concludes by saying that Scheduled Castes Women Panchayat Presidents are performing well for the good governance through community participation and the 73rd Amendment is a milestone in empowering SC women which pushed them to participate or contest in state legislative assembly or parliament election. This act makes them participate in the decision making process in their house as well as public.